Walls Data & Replication Page


Given the number of inquires David Carter and I have received regarding our wall data, I created this webpage to help future scholarship.

First, here are files for replicating or extending results in our 2017 JCR paper ``Why Do States Build Walls?''. These Stata data files and do file reproduce Table 3 (our main results) with updated wall data:

Second, this link opens a zip folder containing the complete replication files for our forthcoming IO paper "Barriers to Trade":

IO Replication Folder

Third, this link opens a zip folder that will produce the main result -- Model 1 of Table 1 -- using alternative codings of some walls in our dataset.

IO Results -Alternate

Fourth, here are files for conducting a step-by-step replication of a "basic version" (i.e. not using a high-dimensional fixed effects model) of the analysis in our forthcoming IO paper "Barriers to Trade".

This Stata .dta file contains a dyadic version of our walls data:

Our trade data comes from version 4.0 of the Correlates of War bilateral trade data, available here. The below link contains a .csv version of the data:

This Stata .do File will merge the dyadic wall data to the dyadic trade data and then conduct the basic core analysis in the paper.

Fifth, here is the original version of our wall data:

Sixth, we also receive a lot of questions about the process used to create our wall data. We don't claim to have the definitive list of walls, but we think others will find it useful to know the procedure we followed to create the list.

We first reached out to Brent Sterling (author of this excellent book) because his book suggests the existence of a larger set of walls (though the book itself focused on a few key cases). He was very helpful. He provided a short list and then directed us to the list from the Global Security Organization. That served as the core of our list. Once we created our "core list", we then turned to Lexis-Nexus, news papers, and Wikipedia (which actually has a nice list of "Separation Barriers"). Column H in the "C&P Wall Data 1.0" Sheet contains information on sources.

Seventh, because border walls are of such (growing) relevance in today's world, we are not the only team of scholars to create a list of border walls. Two other lists were produced by Ron Hassner and Jason Wittenberg and by Nazli Avdan and Chris Gelpi. To see how our list compares to the other two (and how the other two lists compare to one another), click here:

Eighth, Elisabeth Vallet produced a list of walls used by The Economist to produce a nice interactive map of global walls. While we do not compare our coding to the coding of Vallet's team, we do note that the data of our study, the study by Hassner & Wittenberg, the study by Avdan & Gelpi, and the study by Vallett all identify a post-Cold War growth of walls.

Finally, we are working on updates to our walll list, with a focus on including more post-2011 walls (of which there are a growing number). Please check back, as we hope to soon have a version 2.0 of the wall list!

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